Therapeutic Nutrition or Diet Therapy is the application of nutrition and knowledge of Nutritional Science in the treatment of patients. It is a method of adjusting nutrition to the conditions of diseases and requirements of an unwell body.
1. Prevent relapse of disease as a result of nutritional imbalance
2. Protect patient from allergies to diet
3. Ensure that patient obtains sufficient nutritions both in terms of variation and amount
4. Allow abnormal organs to recover according to treatment plan
5. Allow body to digest and absorb nutrition
6. Increase or reduce weight to meet desired body weight standard
7. Maintain and support healthy diet
8. Adjust the amount of nutrition to be suitable for patient’s needs
Types of Diets
1. Normal Diet This type of diet is for patient with normal digestive system, it is a regular standard meal that general patients have.
2. Light Diet or Convalescent Diet This type of diet is to be consumed for a certain period of time before switching to other types of diets. This type of diet usually contains less fat and fiber, it should be a light, and easy to digest meal.
3. Soft Diet This type of diet is for patient with irregular digestive system. It is soft, easy to swallow, does not require chewing and contains less to no residue.
4. Liquid Diet This type of diet is easy to digest and contains less fiber for intensive care patient, patient with high fever or 24 hours post-operation patient. There are two kinds of liquid diet which are; clear liquid diet, e.g. clear rice water, pressed juice; and full liquid diet, e.g. thick rice water, drinks mixed with milk and egg.
5. Special Diet
(1) High Protein Diet This type of diet contains higher protein, it is suitable for patient after operation, burned patient, blood loss patient, pregnant woman or post partum patient.
(2) Low Protein Diet This type of diet contains low protein, suitable for patient with chronic kidney disease, heart disease and high blood pressure.
(3) High Carbohydrate Diet This type of diet contains additional amount of carbohydrate, suitable for patient with jaundice, acidosis, toxemia of pregnancy and diseases related to intestine.
(4) Low Carbohydrate Diet This type of diet contains reduced amount of carbohydrate and glucose, it is suitable for patient with diabetes, obesity, epilepsy, arthritis and celiac disease.
(5) High Fat Diet This type of diet is required when patient needs high calories to increase their weight, it is suitable for patient with chronic constipation, epilepsy, pyelitis and pepticulcer.
(6) Low Fat Diet This type of diet contains reduced fat, it is suitable for patient with kidney disease, diarrhea, abdominal disease, jaundice and obesity.
(7) Low Sodium Diet For patient with diseases that cause swollen organs, chronic kidney disease, high blood pressure, heart diesease, excess acid, this type of diet with reduced sodium is required, and diet with high sodium should be avoided.
(8) Purine Free Diet This type of diet contains less purine which is found in meat, fish, internal organs, some types of cereals, tea and coffee. This type of diet is suitable for patient with chronic kidney disease, arthritis and gout.
(9) High Calorie Diet This type of diet contains higher calories to restore the calories that are quickly burnt. All types of nutrients can also be added. This diet is suitable for underweight patient, patient with tuberculosis and blood loss patient.
(10) Roughage Diet This type of diet contains fresh and dried fruit, fresh vegetables both leave and stalk, as well as other kinds of diets with high fiber. It is suitable for chronic consipation, obesity and diabetes.
(11) Low Residue Diet This type of diet is easy to digest and absorb, low in fiber and does not cause irritation to nervous system and tissue of internal organs. It is suitable for treatment of chronic diarrhea, gastric ulcer, patient with fever and helps prevent movement of intestine in pre- and post-operation patient.
(12) Diet Rich in Mineral Salt Mineral salt and iron are added into this type of diet.
(13) Iron rich Diet This type of diet is suitable for patient with anemia, post-operation patient, pregnant woman, patient with chronic diarrhea, maleria and parasitic infestation.
(14) Calcium Rich Diet This type of diet is suitable for patient with tuberculosis, osteomalacia, epilepsy, dental caries and bone fracture.
(15) Milk Diet This type of diet contains only milk or milk with cream. It is suitable for treatment of gastrointestinal disease. Generally, doctor will determine the patient’s diet according to their body condition and treatment plan.
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